Museum of Plugs and Sockets logo, small Classic Schuko
plugs and sockets
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CEE 7/4
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Albert Büttner (Bayerische Elektrozubehör in Lauf) patented in 1926 an earthed plug and sockets with earth clips rather than an additional pin for earth contact. It was a promising design, but several improvements were needed to make it a successful product.
The 1930 design of Wilhelm Klement, leading engineer of Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Berlin, became the plug and socket that is now better known under the name Schuko. In essence the Schuko type has not been changed since 1930. A separate page gives the full story of the origin of Schuko.

Many of the items shown below have Bakelite casts. Most electro-technical companies had their own Bakelite pressing facility, but sometimes cast production was contracted out. MPAD marks have been helpful to trace the manufacturers involved. See page on MPAD marks for details.

 

Stotz-Kontakt schuko socket with Corodex Bakelite cast
NIKO Schuko socket
Stotz-Kontakt Schuko socket with switch Hazemeyer Hengelo dual socket

1 Schuko socket and double tumble switch, rated at 10A-250V. Inner parts made of steatite. Each part has a SK (Stotz-Kontakt* in Heidelberg, Germany) logo. Bakelite parts have been made by three companies: (i) socket cast: Isoplast GmbH in Bad Godesberg (Germany); (ii) switch cast: Bisterfeld und Stolting in Radevormwald (Germany); (iii) base plate: CORODEX in Zandvoort, a Dutch company specialized in production of Bakelite products. Socket and switch have both German (VDE) and Dutch (KEMA) certification marks. Dating: 1950s.
* In 1968 Stotz-Kontakt became a part of Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH in Lüdenscheid.
2 Socket made by the Belgian company NIKO*. Belgium used French type (CEE 7/5) sockets. Schuko sockets were produced for export to neighboring countries. In the Netherlands surface type sockets were commonly used in the 1950s - '60s.
* a still existing company, established in 1918 in Sint Nikolaas, Belgium.
3 Robust Stotz-Kontakt socket and build-in switch, rated at 10A-250V. Basic parts of socket and switch are made of steatite. A drop symbol indicates protection to splash water. MPAD marks on socket nos 1 and 2 suggest that Stotz-Kontakt did not had a Bakelite pressing facility. The cast of socket no. 2 has been made by Volkenrath & Co. in Schwenke (Germany), while the hinged lid came from Oskar Gaudlitz Presswerk in Coburg (Germany). Dating: 1950s.   {WN}
4 Twin socket for workshops, rated at 15A-250V. Dating: probably 1960s. The manufacturers logo is a double H. Depending on the date of production HH could mean Hazemeyer Hengelo (Netherlands), or Holec Hengelo (later Holec Holland). In 1963 Hazemeyer became a part of the Dutch Holec group. The company is now part of the electrical division of Eaton Corporation (USA). Hazemeyer had its own Bakelite pressing facility.   {WN}

Schuko plug made by Albrecht Jung Schuko plug made by Siemens-Schuckertwerke
classic Schuko plug
Schuko plug made by ABL BEZEG

Schuko plug made by L. Adolf Werneburg Schuko plug made by Erich Jaeger
PRESTO Schuko plug made by Gebr. Vedder
Schuko plug made by Elektroinstallation Sonderhausen


Schuko plug nos. 5 - 12 are similar to each other, but the overall size and grip to pull out a plug differ. Note three safety details:
[1] earth clips are recessed; [2] a collar separates grip from part of plug that is hidden in socket* recess (ca. 18 mm); [3] basal part of plug has two flattened sides with a rectangular notch. Details 1 and 2 makes it nearly impossible to touch earth clips that could be under tension in case of appliance insulation fault. Notches enhance stability of plugs in sockets.  * except plug nos. 7 and 11.

Each plug has a Bakelite cast, from manufacturer's own pressing facility, unless stated otherwise. Shown models are just one of many versions that have been mode by the given company. Moreover, several other companies have made also Schuko plugs.
 
5 Plug with steatite body and Bakelite cast. Manufacturer: Albrecht Jung* in Schalksmühle (Westfalen, Germany). Bakelite cast: Volkenrath & Co. in Schwenke (Westfalen, Germany). Rating 10A-250V. Dating: second half of 1930s.   {PM}
* Founded in 1912 and still existing, family-run company active in design and production of installation materials.
6 Manufacturer: Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Berlin. Basic, Bakelite part that holds pins and cord grip has been made by Preßstoffwerk Paul Schnake in Schöppenstedt (Niedersachsen, Germany); Bakelite housing has a logo of H. Römmler Preßstoffwerk in Spremberg (Brandenburg, Germany). Rating: 10A-250V. Dating: 1930s.   {WN}
7 Plug that has only an indication of rating (10A-250V) and two logos. The triangle with circle and K probably refers to a yet unknown manufacturer. The other one with MEE is an older type of Hungarian certification mark (Magyar Elektrotechnikai Ellenörzö). Dating: 1930s.   {WN}
8 Manufacturer: Albert Büttner Lauf  Bayerische Elektrozubehör GmbH*, abbreviated to ABL BEZEG. Lauf is a town close to Nürnberg, Germany. The basic part has been made of phenol or cresol resin, reinforced with cellulose (MPAD material code 51). Rating: 10A-250V DC and 15A-250V AC. The housing of a shock absorbing, flexible rubber compound. Dating: 1950s.   {WN}
* now ABL SURSUM, after merging of ABL BEZEG and Sursum Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Leyhausen & Co. in Nürnberg in 1990.
9 Manufacturer: L. Adolf Werneburg, elektrotechnische Fabrik in Sürth bei Köln (Germany). Rating: 10A(DC) /15A(AC) - 250V. Dating: 1950s - '60s.   {WN}
10 Classic Schuko plugs with a cord side entry were less common. This model has been made by Erich Jaeger* in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe (Hessen, Germany). Rating: 10A-250V. Dating: 1960s.   {WN}
* Founded in 1927; now active in electrical equipment for automotive industry.
11 The smallest plug in the classic Schuko collection, made by the Gebrüder Vedder in Schalksmühle (Westfalen, Germany). They used the trademark Presto and later changed the company name to Presto-Vedder. Height of plug (excl. pins) is 25.8 mm. When plugged in only a 7.3 mm grip remains to retract the plug. Rating : 10A(DC) /15A(AC) - 250V. Dating: 1960s.
This type of plug was often used for cords of small appliances as small domestic immersion heaters. The type shown is rewirable. Some comparable small plugs were mounted with rivets and could not be reused.    {WN}
12 Plug with protection to intrusion of dust and water according to IP55 level. Manufacturer: VEB Elektroinstallation Sonderhausen (Thüringen, Germany). This plug, made in the former German Democratic Republic has a grade 1 TGL quality mark. Rating: 10A-250V. Dating: 1960s - '70s.   {WN}

PEHA Schuko connector
Busch-Jaeger Schuko plug with switch Holzer Schuko plug with switch Holzer Schuko plug with switch

Schuko triple outlet made in DDR IKA Schuko plug

13 Bakelite connector with cross shaped steatite insulating plate. Rating 16A-250V AC, or 10A-250V DC. Separate indication for alternate and direct current was quite common in the past, but occasionally it still can be found on modern plugs. The connector has been made by Paul Hochköpper & Otto Winkel, who started production of switches, plugs and sockets in 1922 in Lüdenscheid (Germany). The company, that uses the trademark PEHA, is now a part of Honeywell. Dating; 1970s - '80s.   {WN}
14 Plug with rotary with build-in rotary switch mechanism. Rotary switches can be used for direct and alternating current networks, while tumble switches (see no. 16) are not suitable for DC. An explanation is given elsewhere. The rotary Schuko switch shown here has been made by Busch-Jaeger Elektro  (Lüdenscheid, Germany), in the 1960s. Rating: 15A-250V.  {WN}
15 - 16
Schuko plug with push type of switch. The plug has two push buttons. Pressing the black button switches the plug on; simultaneously the red button is pushed up.  Press the red button to release the black button and the plug will be switched off. Image no. 15 shows that the black button pushes down a plastic pin that activates the switch, hidden in the basal part of the plug. Rating: 16A-250V. Manufacturer: Walter Holzer in Meersburg (Bodensee, Germany). Dating: 1970s - '80s.   {PO}
17 Type of extension cord triple outlet that was abundantly used in homes in offices in the German Democratic Republic (DDR).  In particular in older buildings there was a chronic shortage of wall sockets. The underside clearly shows that it is a DDR product. The plug of the extension cord is shown in image no. 18.

Lightning symbol and DAMW mark with numbers N04 and 31 indicate that the Bakelite outlet has been made by the
VEB Elektroinstallation Sonderhausen, in Sonderhausen (Thüringen).
It is remarkable that the outlet has not only the mandatory TGL quality mark (triangle with no. 1), but also a comparable VDE mark. The VDE mark has been added to facilitate export (if any) and/or to justify a higher price at the home market.   {PM}
18 DDR plug with modern look and acentric cord entry. Manufacturer:  VEB Elektroinstallation Sonderhausen (lightning symbol). In 1958 IKA (Installationen, Kabel und Apparate) in Leipzig became a part of the VEB in Sonderhausen. The plug has the highest TGL quality grade (Q1); usually given to products for export to countries that could pay in hard currencies. Rating: 10A(DC) / 16A(AC) - 250V. Dating: 1980s.   {PM}

ABL BEZEG Schuko plug and connector
ABL BEZEG Schuko plug and connector
ABL BEZEG Schuko socket

19 - 21
Largish and robust plug, connector (nos. 19 and 20) and surface mount socket (no, 21) made of  Bakelite (or comparable phenol or cresol resin) reinforced with tissue fibres (MPAD code 71). Drops symbol indicates a certain degree of protection against intrusion of water. Bakelite casts are rigid and may break. To absorb shocks the connector has a rubber band. Manufacturer: Albert Büttner Lauf  Bayerische Elektrozubehör GmbH (ABL BEZEG). Rating 10A(DC) /15A(AC) - 250V. Dating: 1950s.   {WN}

Kopp Steckdosen drehbar; 7 rotatable Schuko outlets

22 Extension cord with seven outlets. Each outlet is rotatable. There are four positions: slots vertical, angled, horizontal and another angled position in which the outlet is switched off, a safe position when an outlet is not used. Both L and N poles are interrupted.
Rating: 16A-250V. Brand name: Heinrich Kopp GmbH*, Germany. Two models have been made, no. 1252 had 4 outlets and 1257 had seven rotatable outlets. Production of both models ended around 2010. The model shown has been used from 1992 to 2011 in a laboratory.   {PM}

* Heinrich Kopp started production of switches in Reinheim (Hessen, Germany) in 1927. Seven years later production moved to Sonneberg, where Kopp started a Spezialfabrik elektrotechnischer Artikel by using Bakelite technology that was abundantly available in Thüringen. After WW II production facilities were confiscated by Soviet Russians as reparations. Heinrich Kopp could move back to Hessen, part of the U.S. zone, and restarted in Kleinblankenbach. From 1956 the company has large production facilities in Kahl am Main (north of Aschaffenburg, Hessen).

 

SCHUKO 25A-250V plug

Note

This page is about Schuko type plugs and sockets with earth clips, but Schuko was not the first and not the only design in Germany with earthed contacts.
Also the 25A-250V type
shown left and some 3-phase plugs has been marketed with the designation SCHUKO. See page on classic continental European heavy duty plugs and sockets.

 

 


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