on plugs and sockets
|Plugs usually have one ore more
certification marks. They show that the plug meets the safety standards
as specified in the given country. In particular older CEE 7/4, 16 and
17 plugs (left) had many marks, necessary to sell products throughout
Europe. Nowadays certification in one of the countries of the European
Union applies to each of the EU states.
The images below shows certification marks that have been found on plugs and sockets in the museum collection. Moreover four Asian marks have been added, based on plug photos sent by Jonathan Miles
Besides certification marks there is often a logo of the manufacturer.
Lists of manufacturers give logos and company details.
Other marks that occasionally can be found on plugs and sockets are:
CE, ENEC and RoHS. Explanation is given at the bottom of page.
|European certification marks|
|1||Germany: VDE = Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker.|
|2||United Kingdom: Kitemark, owned and operated by the British Standards Institution (BSI).|
|3||Netherlands: KEMA = Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen te Arnhem.|
|4||Belgium: CEBEC, division of SGS Belgium (SGS = Société générale de surveillance).|
|5||France: USE =
l'Union des Syndicats de l'Électricité (certification
numbers differ per device). Mark used from 1924 until 1996.
France: product meets standards of NF = Norme Française. Mark issued by AFNOR (l'Association Française de Normalisation).
ASE/SEV = Association Suisse des Électriciens / Schweizerischen
Elektrotechnischer Verein (mark used until 2002).
Switzerland: after renaming the association 'Electrosuisse' in 2002 the +S certification mark is used.
|7||Austria: ÖVE = Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik.|
|8||Italy: IMQ = Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualitŕ|
|9||Ireland: NSAI mark = National Standards Institute.|
|10||Denmark: DEMKO mark (Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol).|
|11||Norway: NEMKO mark (Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll).|
|12||Sweden: SEMKO mark (Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstaiten).|
|13||Finland: FIMKO mark (issued by Suomen Standardisoimisliitto).|
|14||Luxemburg: SNCH mark = Société Nationale de Certification et d'Homologation|
|15||Spain: AENOR = Asociación Espagńola de Normalización y Certificación.|
|16||Portugal: CERTIF mark = Associaçăo para a Certicaçăo.|
|17||Czech Republic: EZU mark = Elektrotechnický zkušební ústav (Electrotechnical Testing Institute).|
|18||Slovakia: EVPU mark = Elektrotechnický výskumný ústav a projektový (Electrotechnical Research Company).|
|19||Poland: B mark = Polskie Centrum Badan I Certyfikacji (Polish Centre for Testing and Certification).|
|20||Hungary: MEEI mark = Magyar Elektrotechnikai Ellenörzö Intézet (Hungarian Institute for Testing Electrical Equipment).|
|21||Russia: GOST-R mark = Gosudarstvennyi Standarty Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology).|
|Selection of non-European certification marks|
|22||United States of America: UL mark = Underwriters Laboratories Inc.|
|23||Canada: CSA mark = Canadian Standards Association.|
|24||Mexico: NOM mark = Normas Officiales Mexicanas - Asociación de Normalización y Certificación.|
|25||Brazil: INMETRO mark = Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade
e Tecnologia (National Institute of Metrology, Stadardization
and Industrial Quality). CEPEL = Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica (Research Centre for Electrical Energy).
|26||Uruguay: UNIT mark = Instituto Uruguayo de Normas Técnicas.|
|27||Argentina: IRAM and S-mark (Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación); both IRAM and S- marks can be found on plugs.|
|28||Chile: SEC mark = Superintendencia de Electricidad y Combustibles (Superintendence of Eletricity and Fuels).|
|29||South Africa: SABS mark = South African Bureau of Standards.|
|30||Turkey: TSE mark = Türk Standardlari Enstitüsü (Turkish Standards Institution).|
|31||Israel: SII mark = Standards Institution of Israel.|
|32||Saudi Arabia and
Gulf states Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman: GCC
mark, issued by Gulf Cooperation
Council (GCC) Standardization Organization (GSO).
|33||India: ISI mark = Indian Standards Institute.|
|34||India: STQC mark =
Standardization Testing and Quality Certification, issued by the
Government of India Ministry of Electronics
and Information Technology. Mark may have the word 'Certification' in Hindi.
|35||Malaysia: MS mark = SIRIM Berhad (Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia).|
|36||Thailand: TISI mark = Thai Industrial Standards Institute.|
Safety Mark issued by Enterprise Singapore, the national standards and
The mark consists of a square (shown) and rectangle with words SAFETY MARK and certification number.
|38||Peoples Republic of China: CCC mark = China Compulsory Certification.|
Kong: HK mark = Hong Kong Safety Mark, issued by the Hong Kong
Standards and Testing Centre (STC)
|40||Japan: PSE mark = Product Safety Electric Appliance and Materials.|
|41||Australia and New Zealand: RCM mark = Regulatory Compliance (trademark owned by Australian and New Zealand regulators).|
Européenne / European Conformity.
EU regulations allow company-internal self-certification processes. The results of tests that show that the product meets the relevant requirements on safety, health and environmental issues must be documented. Moreover, the company has to take responsibility for the safety of the product.
This self-certification system applies to many electrical and electronic products, but domestic plugs and sockets are specifically excluded from the scheme. Sources: European Commission, Wikipedia.
Domestic plugs and sockets are subject to national standards and regulations. Nevertheless you will find CE marks occasionally on plugs.
ENEC mark European Norms Electrical Certification. Products that have received ENEC approval comply with applicable European safety standards. You may find this mark among others on household appliances, consumer electronics, batteries and portable tools, but it is uncommon on plugs and sockets.
Chinese Export mark Plugs and sockets that are made in the PRC may have Chinese Export mark.
Note that it is not a European Conformity mark; the spacing between C and E is different.
RoHS mark Restriction of Hazardous Substances.
European Union directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. The directive is a guide; implementation may differ between EU countries.
See Wikipedia RoHS page for details.